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What is an isometric drawing
Isometric drawing is a graphic representation of a three-dimensional geometric object reduced to two dimensions through parallel projection based on three axes, so that it maintains its proportions in each of the three directions of space: height, width and length.
Isometry is one of the forms of projection used in technical drawing that has the advantage of allowing representation to scale, and the disadvantage of not reflecting the apparent decrease in size perceived by the human eye.
The isometric perspective determines a direction of vision in which the projection of the coordinate axes x, y, z form the same angle, that is, 120º with respect to each other. Objects are displayed rotated 45 degrees in all three main directions (x, y, z). It may sound very complicated but it is not so, it has its complexity but nothing that your love for art allows you to understand.
Doing an isometric drawing does not reduce the size of the object in all three axes, but it allows us to directly draw the dimensions of our model without distorting it.
Where is it used?
We can find its need in Industrial Design, since a piece is represented from different points of view, perpendicular to the natural coordinate axes. These views are commonly known as: plan, height and profile.
In architecture it is also used to represent spaces and buildings.
You will be surprised to know that even some of them, like in video games, put their characters in action using an isometric point of view (or 3/4 perspective).
From a practical standpoint, it allows you to scroll graphic elements without resizing, an unavoidable limitation for computers with low graphics capabilities. With time and technological advancement, the graphical ability of computers makes it possible to make increasingly realistic predictions, based on the way our eyes naturally perceive the environment.
And in an artistic drawing, what is the use of mastering it?
First of all, it is important to say that although in many books and academic programs there is a tendency to separate technical drawing from artistic drawing as different and even opposite sciences, we cannot separate them completely because art is not only intuition or technique. Only to represent equipment and machinery.
And if you want to paint still lifes? You can draw each of the elements according to your intuition and your desire to do so, but it is likely that some of these elements have errors in proportion or position. Knowing how to apply the principles of isometric drawing will allow you to reduce these errors since you will better understand the shape of the objects to be drawn.
What is an isometric in technical drawing?
The most rational representation and consequently the most used in technical drawing is that of an object or piece in its three mirrors: horizontal, transversal and vertical; And through its three axes. Therefore, the importance of isometric drawing must be pointed out, since they represent systems that express depth, height and width.
The word isometric means “equal” and comes from the prefix “isos” meaning “equal” and the word “metric” meaning “measure”. Therefore, isometric refers to the same three-dimensional drawing made when the axes are inclined at an angle of 30° with the horizontal.
One of the great advantages of isometric drawing is that any model can be drawn without the use of a special scale, since the lines parallel to the axes are taken at their actual size.
How to make an isometric drawing by hand
We are going to explain this process starting from the realization of a cube using isometric projection which is very easy. You’ll need a sheet of paper, a ruler, a pencil, and a protractor (or for the short version, using graph paper, skip to the next section).
Using the ruler, draw a vertical line on the page and mark three equally spaced dots along it. Draw a horizontal line through the lowest point and, using the protractor, angle 30 degrees up from the line on each side. Draw a line back through the lowest point from the 30 degree angle on each side.
Repeat this step for the middle point and the same for the top point, but with the top point mark the downward angle. The lines from the second and third points will intersect at a certain point, and from this intersection, draw a vertical line to the angled lines coming from the bottom point. You should be able to see the shape of the cube where all the lines intersect.
In this spectacular video you can see how to make an isometric drawing by hand.
Using an isometric grid
Para todos los tramposos que no tienen las herramientas necesarias (o la inclinación) para crear una proyección isométrica, hay una forma infalible de hacer un dibujo axonométrico: simplemente usando una cuadrícula isométrica. El patrón se puede descargar en línea y te ahorrará mucho tiempo y esfuerzo.